The information processing model of memory involves change(processing) of information in many manners detectable by an observer. Information processing approach is the branch of cognitive psychology. Human thinking is the main goal by which we study information processing. The study of information processing starts between the 1940s and 1950s. Not just a psychologist, common people have a keen interest in studying the mental phenomenon of information exchange.
Information Processing Theory
Information processing theory | Psychologist and researcher spend their most valuable time in understanding How human learn and perceive things. Their perception, thinking, and understanding is the main concern to study cognitive psychology.
The information processing includes learning of new information, acquiring it and retrieve previous information from the LTM(Long term memory).
Neisser Definition of Information processing, “It is the study of how people encode, structure, store, retrieve, use or otherwise learn knowledge.
Principles of Information Processing Approach
The basic principles of the information processing systems are:
- The first principle of the information processing approach is the amount of information is very limited. The amount of information that can be processed by the system is in a limited amount.
- The second principle of the information processing approach is that a control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information. When one is learning a new task or is confronted with a new environment, the executive function requires more processing power than when one is doing a routine task or is in a familiar environment.
- The third principle of the information processing approach is that there is a two-way flow of the information as we try to make sense of the world around us.
Bottom-up processing – The gather of information through the constant use from the senses.
Top-Down processing – Information we gathered in memory is a dynamic process as we construct the meaning about our environment and our relations to it.
4. The fourth principle of the information processing approach is that human being has been genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways. E.g human infants are more likely to look at the face more than any other side.
Information Processing in Learning and Memory
Schacter and Tulving state that, “A memory system is kind of information processing and the principles of its operation.”
Memory is the combination of all mental experiences.
According to the Eliasmith, “General ability, or faculty that enables us to interpret the perceptual world to help organize responses to changes that take place in the world.”
Cognitive Information Processing Model of Learning
Information theorist approach learning primarily through a study of memory. The Cognitive information processing model of learning presents a well-established paradigm of cognitive-behavioral psychology. The model of the processing articulates the limited capacity of “working memory.”
Memory is the process of retrieval. Memory is the process of retrieval. Either you know about cricket, you know some facts about football, you know how to cook etc. All are part of the memory.
The main feature of the memory is retrieval. Memory helps for an individual to know who are they. Imagine a situation if someone has no memory, then people fail to learn new things, process further information.
It is the memory who do basic processing for retrieving, store and encode vice versa.
Information processing in memory can be viewed from a computer modal perspective. Processing involves encoding of information( gathering and representing information), storage(holding information) and retrieval( getting the information when needed). The entire system is guided by a control process that determines how and when information will flow through the system.