What is Perception?
Perception | Perception is the group of procedures by which we understand, organize, and make awareness of these senses we receive out of the ecological factors. Understanding encompasses many psychological phenomena of perception. Mainly, we are going to talk on the topic of visual perception in this article. It is most widely recognized and the most commonly studied perceptual modality( i.e., system for a particular sense, such as touch or smell). Try it out yourself. Look out of your window. Can you see how things that further away seem much smaller than you know they are? This is just one example of the complex process of perception.
Visual Perception- Investigating Cognitive Psychology
Stand at one end of a room and hold your thumb up to your eye so that it is the same size as the door on the opposite side of the room. Do you really think that your thumb is as large as a door? No. You know that your thumb is close to you, so it just looks as large as the door. These are numerous cues in the room to tell you that the door is farther away from you than your thumb is. In your mind, you make the door much more significant to compensate for the distance away from you. Knowledge is the key to visual perception. You know that your thumb and the door are not the same sizes, so you are able to use the experience to correct for what you know is not so.
The Ganzfeld Effect
Cut a ping-Pong ball in two halves or use two plastic spoons. Paint them uniformly in red, for example, making sure there are no streaks so that you really have one uniform field of color. Put the ball haves or the spoons over your eyes so that your eyes are completely covered. At some point, your perception will change from the color red to grey because your cells have adapted to the constant stimulus. Some people also perceive hallucinations and experience altered states of consciousness when exposed to a Ganzfeld.
Different Visual Perception Approaches to Sense of What We See?
There are different views on how we perceive the world. These views can be summarized as bottom up processing and top down processing.
Bottom Up Processing Theories
Bottom up processing theories explain approaches where understanding begins with the stimulation whose look that you choose in through your eye. You look out the city space, and recognition happens when the light information is transported to your brain. Therefore, they are data-driven theories. Not, all arguments focus on the sensory data of the personal stimulus. Many theorists prefer top down processing methods.
According to the top down processing theory, visual perception is driven by high-level cognitive psychology , existing knowledge, and the prior expectations that influence perception.
The four main form and pattern bottom up processing perception are:
- Direct Perception.
- Template Theories
- Feature Theories.
- Recognition-by-components Theory
Gibson’s Theory of Direct Perception, How do we connect what we perceive to what we have stored in our minds?
Neuroscience and Direct Perception Neuroscience also indicated that direct perception may be involved in person perception. About 30 to 100 milliseconds after a visual stimulus, mirror neurons start firing. So before we even have time to form a hypothesis about what we are perceiving, we may already be able to understand the expressions, emotions, and movements of the person we observe.
Templates theories suggest that we have stored in our minds multiple sets of templates. We recognize the pattern by comparing it with our collection of models.
Neuroscience and Template Theories. Letters of the alphabet are simpler than faces and other complex stimuli. But, how do we recognize letters? Experiments suggest that there is indeed a difference between letters and digits. There is an area on or near the left fusiform gyrus that is activated significantly more when a person is presented with messages that with figures.
Why computers have Trouble Reading Handwriting Think about how easy it is for you to perceive and understand someone’s handwriting. In handwriting, every body’s number and letters look a bit different. You can still distinguish them without any problems. This is something computers do not do very well all.
For computers, the reading of handwriting is an incredibly difficult task that’s prone to mistakes. Therefore some computers work with algorithms that consider the context in which the word is presented, the angular positions of the written letters( e.g., upright or tilted), and other factors.
According to feature-matching theories, we attempt to match features of a pattern to elements stored in memory, rather than to match a whole design to a template or a prototype.
The Pandemonium Model One such feature-matching model has been called Pandemonium( “pandemonium” refers to a noisy, chaotic place and hell).
Neuroscience and Feature-Matching Theories Some support for feature theories comes from neurological and physiological research. Researchers used single-cell recording techniques with animals. They carefully measured the response of individual neurons to visual stimuli in the visual cortex. A disproportionately large amount of the visual cortex is devoted to neurons mapped to receptive fields in the foveal region of the retina, which is the area of the most acute vision.
Neuroscience and Recognition-by- Components Theory Geons are viewpoints invariant, so studies show that neurons exist that react to properties of an object that stay respond to properties of an object that remain the same, no matter whether you look at them from the front or the side.
And indeed, some studies have found neurons in the inferior temporal cortex that are sensitive to just those viewpoint-invariant properties. However, many neurons respond primarily to one view of an object and decrease their response gradually the more the object is rotated.
This viewpoint also is known as a keen perception because it states that higher-order thinking plays a vital role in understanding.
An exciting feature of the theory of constructive perception is that it links human intelligence even to fairly basic processes of visual perception. According to this theory, understanding comprises not merely a low-level set of cognitive psychology, but actually a quite a sophisticated set of operations that interact with and are guided by human intelligence.
The viewpoint of constructive or intelligent perception shows the central relationship between knowledge and intelligence. According to this viewpoint, information is an integral part of our perceptual processing. We do not perceive directly regarding what is “out there in the world.” Instead, we see regarding the expectations and other cognitions we bring to our interaction with the world.
How both Bottom-Up Processing Theories and Top-down Processing Theories are related to each other?
Construct visits emphasize the importance of prior knowledge in combination with relatively ambiguous and straightforward information from the sensory receptors. In contrast, direct perception theorists emphasize the completeness of the data in the receptors themselves. They suggest that perception merely occurs and directly.
To summarize, current theories concerning the ways we perceive patterns explain some, but not all, of the phenomena we encounter in the study of form and pattern perception. Given the complexity of the process, it is impressive that we understand as much as we do. At the same time, clearly, a comprehensive theory is still forthcoming.
Perception of Objects and Forms
Do we perceive objects in a viewer-centered or in an object-centered way? When we gaze at an object in the space around us, do we see it about us rather than its actual structure, or do we perceive it in a more objective way that is independent of how it appears to us right this moment?
Viewer-Centered vs. Object-Centered Perception
Right now one of your authors is looking at the computer on which he is typing this text. There are two common positions regarding the answer to this question.
One position, viewer-centered representation, is that the individual stores the way the object looks to him or her. The shape of the object changes, depending on the angle we see. Some views of the object are stored, and when we try to recognize an object, we have to rotate that object in our mind until it fits one of the stored images.
The second position, object-centered representation, is that the individual stores a description of the object, independent of its appearance to the viewer. This stability can be achieved using establishing the major and minor axes of the purpose, which then serve as a basis for defining further properties of the object.
The Perception of Groups-Gestalt Laws
Visual Perception helps us make sense of the complex stimuli that we perceive in the world. One way to bring order and coherence into our perception is our ability to group similar things. This way, we can reduce the number of things that need to be processed.
The overarching law is the law of Prägnanz. We tend to perceive any given visual array in a way that most organizes merely the different elements into a stable and coherent form. Thus, we do not only experience a jumble of incomprehensible, disorganized sensations.
For example, we tend to perceive a focal figure and other feelings as forming a background for the number on which we focus.
The Gestalt principles provide valuable descriptive insights into form and pattern perception. But they offer few or no explanations of these phenomena. To understand how or why we perceive structures and patterns, we need to consider critical theories of perception.
Depth is the distance from a surface, usually using your own body as a reference surface when speaking regarding depth perception. This use of depth information extends beyond the range of your body’s reach.
Depth perception may depend upon more than just the distance or depth at which an object is located relative to oneself. The perceived distance to a target is influenced by the effort required to walk to the location of the goal.
People with a heavy backpack perceive the distance to a target location as farther than those not wearing a heavy bag. In other words, there can be an interaction between the perceptual result and the perceived effort required to reach the object perceived.
Depth perception is an excellent example of how cues facilitate our understanding. When we see an object that appears small, there is no automatic reason to believe it is farther away. Instead, the brain uses this contextual information to conclude that the smaller object is farther away.
Deficits of Perception
Agnosias and Ataxias
Perceptual deficits provide an excellent way to test hypotheses concerning how the perceptual system works. Remember that there are two distinct visual pathways, one for identifying objects (“what”), the other for pinpointing where objects are located in space and how to manipulate them (“where” or “how”).
Anomalies in Color Perception
Color perception deficits are much more common in men than in women, and they are genetically linked. However, they can also result from lesions to the ventromedial occipital and temporal lobes.
There are several kinds of color deficiency, which are sometimes referred to as kinds of “color blindness.” Least ordinary is rod monochromacy, also called achromat. It is thus the only valid form of pure color blindness.
They see only shades of gray, as a function of their vision through the rods of the eye. Most people who suffer from deficits in color perception can still see some color, despite the name “color blindness.” In dichromacy, only two of the mechanisms for color perception work and one is malfunctioning.
The result of this malfunction is one of three types of color blindness (color-perception deficits). The most common is red-green color blindness. People with this form of color blindness have difficulty in distinguishing red from green, although they may be able to identify, for example, dark red from light green (Visual disabilities: Color-blindness, 2004).
The extreme form of red-green color blindness is called protanopia. The other types of color, blindness is deuteranopia (trouble seeing greens), and tritanopia (blues and greens can be confused, but yellows also can seem to disappear or to appear as light shades of reds).